PainSA is a chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Our mission is to improve all aspects of pain management in Southern Africa.

Hope Theory: Rainbows in the Mind

C. R. Snyder
The University of Kansas, Lawrence

Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and
motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways. The adult and child hope
scales that are derived from hope theory are described. Hope theory is compared to
theories of learned optimism, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Higher hope
consistently is related to better outcomes in academics, athletics, physical health, psychological adjustment, and psychotherapy. Processes that lessen hope in children and
adults are reviewed. Using the hope theory definition, no evidence is found or ‘false “
hope. Future research is encouraged in regard to accurately enhancing hope in medical feedback and helping people to pursue those goals for which they are best suited.