Clonidine in pediatric anesthesia: the new panacea or a drug still looking for an indication?
Clonidine was first synthesized in Germany in 1962 and introduced into clinical practice in 1966 as an antihypertensive drug. In children, the indications for its use have increased to cover a wide range of conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; withdrawal symptoms (i.e. opioids, benzodiazepines); sleep disorders, anxiety, sympathetic nervous system responses (i.e. sweating, flushing, tachycardia, hypertension, restlessness); pain (perioperative and migraine headaches); for procedural sedation, postoperative agitation, nausea and vomiting and shivering, management of acute dystonia and delirium in pediatric ICUs (PICUs).