Challenges in pain assessment and management among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities
Developmental disabilities incorporate a diverse group of conditions associated with impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavioural functioning or a combination of these. These conditions begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime. Within that broad grouping, the diagnosis of intellectual disability (previously referred to as “mental retardation” in the United States and “learning disability” in the United Kingdom) is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour, which covers many everyday social and practical skills, and originates before the age of 18. Our focus is to describe the challenges of pain assessment and management in individuals with IDD-related severe communicative, motor, and cognitive impairment.