Access to controlled medicines for anesthesia and surgical care in low-income countries: a narrative review of international drug control systems and policies
This article describes the functioning of the international drug control system, its integration into national legislation and policy, and the collective impact on access to medicines.
We conducted a review of the three international drug control conventions, peer-reviewed articles, and grey literature known to the authors that describes national and international drug control systems and their impact on access to controlled medicines. This review was supplemented with literature derived from a structured search of MEDLINE® for articles relating to medical uses of ketamine in low- and middle-income countries conducted to strengthen an advocacy campaign. We illustrate the impact of the drug control system on access to medicines through an analysis of current levels of availability of opioids in many countries as well as through a description of the ongoing advocacy work to ensure the availability of ketamine for medical care in low-income countries.